Here are ten credit rating agencies whose decisions have had significant ramifications for countries or companies:
1. Standard & Poor’s (S&P): S&P is one of the most influential credit rating agencies globally. Its downgrades or upgrades of countries’ sovereign ratings have far-reaching consequences, impacting borrowing costs, investor sentiment, and economic stability.
2. Moody’s Investors Service: Moody’s is another prominent credit rating agency known for its assessments of sovereign debt and corporate bonds. Its ratings have a significant impact on borrowing costs and market perceptions.
3. Fitch Ratings: Fitch is a major credit rating agency that assesses the creditworthiness of countries, corporations, and financial institutions. Its ratings have consequences for borrowing rates and investment decisions.
4. Japan Credit Rating Agency (JCR): JCR is a Japanese rating agency that influences investment decisions within Japan and across Asia. Its ratings have significant implications for Japanese and regional companies.
5. China Chengxin International Credit Rating: As China’s domestic credit rating agency, Chengxin influences the creditworthiness and borrowing costs of Chinese corporations and the country itself, affecting both domestic and international investors.
6. A.M. Best: A.M. Best specializes in credit ratings for insurance companies. Its ratings impact insurers’ abilities to underwrite policies and attract business, which can have broader ramifications for the insurance and financial sectors.
7. Dagong Global Credit Rating: Dagong is a Chinese credit rating agency that aims to offer an alternative perspective to Western agencies. Its ratings affect Chinese companies, and it has also provided ratings for some sovereign debt.
8. Egan-Jones Rating Company: Egan-Jones is a smaller rating agency that has had an impact on bond prices and market perceptions, particularly for corporate issuers in the United States.
9. DBRS Morningstar: DBRS Morningstar is one of the largest credit rating agencies in Europe and provides ratings for various sectors, including sovereign debt, banks, and corporations. Its ratings influence borrowing costs and investor confidence.
10. S&P Global Ratings Australia: S&P Global Ratings has a specific Australian subsidiary that assesses the creditworthiness of Australian entities. Its ratings have significant ramifications for local companies and the country’s economic stability.
Please note that the impact of credit rating agencies can vary over time and depending on specific circumstances. Additionally, there are other credit rating agencies with regional or specialized influence that may also have significant ramifications in specific contexts.